For understanding

**, there are some points which are very important to know. Those points are as follows:***Crawling*- Speed of Rotating magnetic flux = 2f/P, where f is frequency of Supply and P is the number of Poles

- Harmonic magnetic flux travel at a speed of 1/k time that of fundamental magnetic flux.

- Harmonic magnetic flux rotates in the direction of rotation of fundamental magnetic flux if k = (6m+1), where m = 1,2,3……

- Therefore, 7
^{th},13^{th}, 19^{th }etc. harmonic magnetic flux will rotate in the direction of rotation of fundamental magnetic flux.

- Harmonic magnetic flux rotates in the opposite direction of rotation of fundamental magnetic flux if k = (6m-1), where m = 1,2,3……

Therefore, 5

^{th},11^{th}17^{th }etc. harmonic magnetic flux will rotate in the opposite direction of rotation of fundamental magnetic flux.
After knowing all the above
mentioned facts, we will come to Crawling.

**Crawling:**

Crawling is a phenomenon in
which Induction Motor operates at very low speed. Crawling is caused by the
presence of space harmonics in the air gap flux. Following are the reason for
the presence of space harmonics in the air gap flux:

- Air gap harmonics due to uneven distribution of Stator winding.

- Due to variation in air gap reluctance because of Stator and Rotor Slots. Space Harmonics due to this is also called Slot or Tooth Harmonics.

The analysis of Stator mmf
wave by Fourier Series shows that it consists of fundamental mmf wave and other
odd harmonic mmf wave.

*As the sum of Triplen (multiple of 3) harmonic mmf wave due to all three phases sum up to zero therefore resultant air gap flux is free from 3*^{rd}and Triplen harmonics.

The most predominant space
harmonics are 5

^{th}and 7^{th}, therefore in our discussion only these two harmonics will be considered.
Thus, 5

^{th}harmonic mmf wave will rotate at a speed of Ns/5 rps in opposite to the fundamental mmf wave and 7^{th}harmonic mmf wave will rotate at Ns/7 rps in the direction of rotation of fundamental mmf wave.
These two harmonic mmf will
produce their own torque in Induction Motor. The torque produced by 5

^{th}harmonic mmf will be breaking in nature as the wave rotates in opposite direction of rotation of fundamental mmf wave while torque produced by 7^{th}harmonic will aid the torque produced by fundamental mmf wave. A polt of Torque Slip characteristic is drawn for each as shown below.
From the above torque slip
characteristics, it is clear that if Load Torque is assumed TL then Motor will
have stable operation at a slip of 6/7 and therefore Motor will operate at a
speed of Ns/7 [As 6/7 =(Ns -Nr )/Ns , so
Nr = Ns/7]

This stable operation at a
speed of Ns/7 is called

**as this speed is much lower than the rated speed of Induction Motor.***Crawling***in Induction Motor leads to higher Stator Current, noise and vibration.**

*Crawling***Thank you! In next post we will discuss Cogging, so be there and SUBSCRIBE.**

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